An earlier survey was conducted by Leonard Ray for 1984, 1988, 1992, and 1996. The combined Ray-Marks-Steenbergen dataset merges the 1999 Chapel Hill survey with the Ray dataset. The original variable names and party ids in the Ray data are relabeled to make them consistent with the Chapel Hill survey. Researchers can combine this dataset with the 2002, 2006, and 2010 data. The original Ray dataset is available on Ray's website.
Leonard Ray, Gary Marks, Marco Steenbergen
how to cite
When using the combined Ray-Marks-Steenbergen dataset, cite the following:
- Marco Steenbergen and Gary Marks (2007). "Evaluating Expert Judgments," European Journal of Political Research, 46.3: 347-366.
Leonard Ray (1999), "Measuring party orientations toward European integration: Results from an expert survey," European Journal of Political Research, 36.2: 283-306.