The Chapel Hill expert surveys estimate party positioning on European integration, ideology and policy issues for national parties in a variety of European countries. The first survey was conducted in 1999, with subsequent waves in 2002, 2006, 2010, and 2014. The number of countries increased from 14 Western European countries in 1999 to 24 current or prospective EU members in 2006 to 31 countries in 2014. In this time, the number of national parties grew from 143 to 268. The 2014 survey includes all EU member states, plus parties in Norway, Switzerland, and Turkey. Separate surveys were conducted in the Balkan candidate countries. Questions on parties' general position on European integration, several EU policies, general left/right, economic left/right, and social left/right are common to all surveys. More recent surveys also contain questions on non-EU policy issues, such as immigration, redistribution, decentralization, and environmental policy.
With thanks to the European Union Center for Excellence, University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill, and the Chair in Multilevel Governance at the VU University Amsterdam for support.
The CHES team also thanks our hundreds of generous experts, without whom we could not produce these data.
In 2007, we also conducted a mini-survey in five European Union candidate countries: Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia, and Turkey.
An earlier survey was conducted by Leonard Ray for 1984, 1988, 1992, and 1996. The combined Ray-Marks-Steenbergen dataset merges the 1999 Chapel Hill survey with the Ray dataset. The original variable names and party ids in the Ray data are relabeled to make them consistent with the Chapel Hill survey. Researchers can combine this dataset with the 2002, 2006, and 2010 data. The original Ray dataset is available on Ray's website.
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